G62 – Automatic Corner Override – Brief Overview

When milling, have you ever experienced chatter and poor surface finish when you are attempting to machine an inside corner radius using the same feedrate as the rest of the workpiece?

Oftentimes, this results in the programmer having to decrease the cutting feedrate in the blocks where the tool cuts in the corner areas. Is there another way to have this done automatically ?

The most common situation above occurs when cutter compensation (G41 or G42) is active and you are attempting to cut in a corner where the toolpath inside radius and the TNR offset value are of similar size. You can use the machine to calculate an automatic decrease in feedrate using the G62 – Automatic Corner Override command ( This is a Fanuc G code … check your programming manual if you are programming a non-fanuc compatible machine … there is probably a similar command.) When G62 is commanded, the machine adjusts the feedrate automatically to maintain the cutting quantity per unit time in the corner. This often results in improved surface finish without the intervention or alteration of the programmed feedrate.

A couple of notes for G62 use :

  1. Once commanded, G62 becomes MODAL and must be cancelled by commanding G64 (normal cutting mode) or by Power Off as G64 is usually the normal power on mode.
  2. G62 can only be used effectively in conjunction with Cutter Compensation – G41 / G42.

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

Ideas for Dealing with the Skill Shortage in Your Shop

With the pace of manufacturing picking up, the effects of a lacking skilled workforce are also appearing in a lot of today’s shops. Whether it be the lack of personnel with machining experiences, CNC programming experience or even CNC operator experience … these effects can be devastating to your shops ability to compete and win profitable work. So what can be done?

President Trump seems to have us heading in the right direction with his initiative to institute more apprenticeship  programs in the manufacturing sector … but the time frame for those changes to reflect on your shop floor can be months or even years. What about now? Are there things we can implement to assist those efforts? … or even help them along?

Kipware® can help !!

Start with CNC Programming Training

To start with … our KipwareEDU® – CNC Programming Training and Reference Software is a great proven-in-the-trenches tool to assist in learning and understanding CNC programming. The manufacturing professionals at Kentech Inc. have been providing in-house CNC programming training since 1986. Having conducted hundreds of training classes in every size shop around the country … we developed a proven format for clear and concise … no fluff … programming training. We then took that proven formula and content and created a learn-at-your-own-pace training software solution in KipwareEDU®. We are firm believers in creating a strong foundation to move forward … and that includes teaching in depth the actual programming formats and codes you will actually need and use in today’s CNC programming. Whether it be mill programming … lathe programming … multi-axis programming or even Fanuc Macro Programming … KipwareEDU® has a starter package for you with many options to build on your strong foundation and move forward.

Here are some ideas on how to implement KipwareEDU® in your shop :

  1. Load KipwareEDU® on a laptop and allow your selected personnel the opportunity to personally use the laptop for a period of time to explore and learn CNC programming.
  2. Load KipwareEDU® on a laptop or PC on the shop floor and allow personnel the opportunity to access that PC and use KipwareEDU® as a reference tool to enhance and / or learn CNC programming.
  3. Give away KipwareEDU® as an incentive or gift and … give the gift of knowledge. It will come back to pay big dividends for your shops future.

Enhance Your Shop Floor Programming

If you are a visitor to our BLOG or website … you will know that we are also firm believers in the SHOP FLOOR PROGRAMMING MODEL vs THE CAD/CAM MODEL. Our favorite slogans are :

It’s NOT Always Rocket Science

We are also firm believers that relying on CAD/CAM only programming CAN MAKE YOUR SHOP DUMBER … read more here. 

As with our KipwareEDU® … we packed our Kipware® Conversational CNC Programming Software with our REAL WORLD experiences and created the PREMIER PC based conversational CNC programming software. Our concept and user interface provide an easy-to-use yet powerful shop floor programming application that can assist chipmakers become fast and efficient CNC programmers. Allowing chipmakers to create the simpler, everyday CNC programs will provide your shop with increased efficiency … will break the programming bottleneck … will increase profitability … along with providing your chipmakers with increased self worth and motivation.

We encourage you to explore Kipware® Conversational HERE … and research our many in-depth articles detailing the how’s and why’s of shop floor programming and what it can mean for your shop.

Are you ready for the increase in manufacturing opportunities coming down the track? Are you ready to assist your workforce become the workforce you require to meet those challenges? Kipware® software are powerful and proven-in-the-trenches tools that can help.

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

G01 — Use ME for RAPID Movement Too !!

To experienced G code programmers … we might be stating the obvious here … but for the novice, this blog post may reveal a valuable programming trick that may come in handy during your CNC programming life.

When learning G code programming … one of the first codes taught are G00 and G01. G00 is used for rapid movement … making the axis move at their top speeds … while G01 is used for moving at a feedrate in a straight line. If we take a look at some of the details of these codes … we will also reveal a few hints into how they can be manipulated beyond their basic design.

A couple of notes on G00 :

  • As stated G00 executes axis movement at their top speed … so we can get to the destination as quickly as possible.
  • Oftentimes … the two axis are not created with the same rapid traverse speed … for example the X axis may be able to travel 1200 IPM while the Y axis is only capable of 850 IPM. This is often due to the design of the machine … size of the ball screw, etc..
  • When two axis are involved in the G00 move … the distance each axis has to travel is the determining factor as to which axis reaches it’s destination first … resulting in a move that is not a straight line.
  • Oftentimes … the machine is equipped with a RAPID OVERRIDE switch / dial that allows the user to slow down the rapid movement by some percentage … 25% – 50% – 100%. BUT … there is usually no a variable setting … so the rapid movements are hard to control when working in tight corners during program prove out.

A couple of notes on G01 :

  • G01 executes axis movement at a programmed feedrate … the axis moves at a rate that we determine via the F command.
  • When two axis are involved in the G01 move … the machine’s CNC controller calcuates the speed at which each axis will move so that each axis arrives at the end point at the same time … always resulting in a move that is a straight line.
  • Oftentimes … the machine is equipped with a FEEDRATE OVERRIDE switch / dial that allows the user to slow down the feed movement by percentages … there is usually a variable setting … and allows for extensive flexibility during program prove out … even to pause the movement completely.

SOooo What??

The points outlined above lend themselves to some “bending and twisting” and result in some nice features that can be employed in our CNC programming … such as :
  • We often think of G01 movement as cutting feed or cutting movement … but using a faster feed of 200-300 IPM or higher … when not cutting can turn a G01 move into a “rapid” move.

The two main advantages of programming G01 for rapid include :

  • Programming a fast feed into a G01 block will always result in a straight line move … comes in handy sometimes when moving around the part and avoiding possible collisions that a non-linear move like G00 may cause.
  • The FEEDRATE OVERRIDE switch allows us greater flexibility during programming prove out than the RAPID OVERRIDE … but yet when running at 100% the fast feedrate doesn’t have to effect our cycletime.

Thinking Outside the Box … always produces interesting results. In this case … we can bend the intended use of G01 to assist us creating an un-intended yet beneficial cutter movement.

 Got Ya Think’in ??
Any Other Ideas ??

X-Carve Programming … Shop Floor Programming … with KipwareM®

As we continue to ramp up our sister woodworking company … KÄRV … we continue to demonstrate  and prove our mantras for our Kipware® machine shop software. Metalworking operations … woodworking operations … both have a lot of similarities and requirements and we continue to prove our Kipware® real world machine shop design and features in our now real world woodworking environment.

We recently blogged regarding how we utilize our KipwareCYC® and KipwareQTE® machine shop cycletime and cost estimating software to estimate retail costs for some of our wood products. If you missed it … see the full article HERE.

We are also proving our “not every job requires a CAD/CAM system” programming mantra at KÄRV as well. We recently put our KipwareM® – conversational CNC programming software for milling … to work on a shop floor programming project we were working on in the KÄRV workshop. If you haven’t read our article on shop floor programming vs. CAD/CAM programming … it’s quite the eye-opener … you can read the full article HERE.

The Rest of the Story …

We came up with an idea for a unique clock design that featured a quartz clock movement inside a slice of an oak log. To house the clock body … we needed to mill a 3″ diameter hole in the slice … and we wanted to use our X-Carve CNC router to mill the hole. Simple enough … and it really illustrates how a simple programming project could turn into an overblown programming project if we were to use a CAD/CAM program to create that G code program.

Here’s the finished product

In a CAD/CAM system we would have had to first create a drawing … why? … and then use that drawing to create the toolpath. Some extra steps that would not only cost us time but that time expense has to go somewhere and that would mean additional labor costs associated with the cost of the clock … which would eventually be for sale on our website. Want one … get it HERE !!

So we started KipwareM® … no drawing required … and with a couple of fill-in-the-blank forms completed … we had our G code program to rough pocket and finish mill … using a helical milling routine … the 3″ hole needed to mount the clock movement. Here are some screenshots of the forms … simple, plain english, fill-in-the-blank forms with tons of machining options that created a quick and efficient toolpath … no drawing nor drawing time required Bang bang done !!

As I mentioned we roughed the pocket using a pocketing routine … but we finished the side walls using a helical type cutting routine. Very easy to create in KipwareM® and posted out using KipwareXC® with our X-Carve Profile. We sent the G code and drove the X-Carve using the Universal G Code Sender application. The results were outstanding and the fit for the clock movement was perfect … first shot.

Needless to say we saved ourselves a ton of time by not having to create a drawing and by using our shop floor programming ( not CAD/CAM programming ) model and KipwareM®. We did the programming right at the machine … no expensive CAD/CAM system required and no drawing or CAD/CAM experience required.

AND … we like the results !!

Another unique wood design produced in the KÄRV workshop !!

If you would like to learn more about KÄRV woodworking and see our other products and designs … please visit our website … www.KarvWoodworking.com

If you would like to explore our conversational, shop floor programming applications or any of our other REAL WORLD machine shop software … please visit our website … www.KentechInc.com

Kenney Skonieczny
President – Kentech Inc.
Woodworker – KÄRV Woodworking

Cost Estimating for a Wooden Plaque with KipwareQTE®

If you have followed our Blog … you might know that back in October of 2015 we started a sister company to Kentech Inc. called KÄRV. KÄRV is a woodworking business … is just getting started … and will be producing custom, handmade furniture and unique wood carvings for resale.



We are using the Kipware® software from Kentech Inc. in KÄRV to both create the G code programs for our X-Carve CNC router and to estimate cycletime and costs for the products we will be producing for resale. So we are putting Kipware® to the test in the real world … this time the world of woodworking … for additional in-the-trenches use.

We also wanted to document some of the use of Kipware® in various areas of KÄRV … so this post is dedicated to the cost estimating of a wooden, 3D carved plaque we have for sale on our website.

We wanted to illustrate through the video available below how we used our KipwareQTE® to create the retail price for the plaque considering material cost, tooling cost, labor cost and non-machining costs. Metalworking … woodworking … they both have very similar aspects as they relate to manufacturing … so this video is a great way to see KipwareQTE® in action in a woodworking environment … but with a lot of similarities with a metalworking one.

For additional information on all our Kipware® CNC and Machine Shop software titles … please visit www.KentechInc.com.

For additional information on KÄRV woodworking … please visit www.KarvWoodworking.com

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

Shop Floor Programming … Why It’s Different and Why It Matters

If you have ever worked and lived on the shop floor … as we did for over 30+ years … you know there is a difference between programming in a job shop type environment  … what we call every day programming / shop floor programming … and complex “die and mold” programming which is the true essence of CAD/CAM and CAD/CAM programming.

It’s a fact … it’s real … and it can DEFINITELY mean the difference between profit and loss. 

This post is dedicated to exploring exactly what we mean …. because there is a HUGE difference in employing a SHOP FLOOR PROGRAMMING model vs. a CAD/CAM PROGRAMMING model. 


Our definition of shop floor programming is the programming of the simpler, everyday type workpieces on the shop floor … perhaps directly at the machine … by the shop floor personnel using simpler G code creation tools like Kipware® conversational. It is in contrast to the CAD/CAM programming model where CAD/CAM software … with the start of everything dependent on a CAD drawing … is used by dedicated “CAD/CAM” guy(s) to create G code programs. Our 30+ years of shop floor experience have proven to us that everyday operations like simple milling … drilling … tapping … turning … grooving … boring … for the everyday type parts machined in 95% of job shops around the world every day … can be created more efficiently using the  shop floor programming model.

In a job shop and / or production environment … shop floor programming can especially pay big dividends when the statement “the more the merrier” is employed. The more personnel that are involved in the creation of G code programs … the better the efficiency and the better the output. And of course, allowing shop floor personnel to create the simpler, everyday CNC programs using tools like our Kipware® conversational means increased profits along with that increased efficiency and output.

In most cases … being a good chipmaker is the key experience requirement. Someone who can cut chips … knows material removal and all that that encompasses … and knows fixturing and workholding. While the knowledge of G code in any CNC environment is always essential … tools like Kipware® conversational can assist those chipmakers with limited G code knowledge create fast and efficient  G code programs from scratch. Many chipmakers have a handle on G code but creating a G code program from scratch can be a daunting, cumbersome and sometimes slow task. The reverse is also true … CAD/CAM / computer operators often lack the chipmaking and fixturing expertise of the shop floor personnel resulting in non-efficient CAD/CAM programs or constant re-programming because of real world consequences.


Is contrast to the points outlined above … the programming of complex … what we’ll call “die and mold programming” … should be the main prerequisite  behind a CAD/CAM programming model. CAD is an essential tool for design and engineering … and while the the CAM portion of the CAD/CAM model can be disputed … for complex, 3D programming die and mold programming … it to is essential.

However, using a complex CAD/CAM system and requiring CAD/CAM trained personnel to create G code programs for the simpler, everyday type workpieces can mean the exclusion of valuable chipmakers from the programming process. It can oftentimes lead to slow program creation and thus decreased efficiency, productivity and output. The fact is … CAD/CAM was never designed for EVERYDAY programming. It was created to handle complex design and the programming of complex aircraft and die / mold components. It was always an afterthought to adept it to production programming. The mere fact that everything starts with a drawing inherently makes it more complex and cumbersome for this task.

 Debating the CAM in CAD/CAM

Even when utilizing a CAD application for design … still not every workpiece should be or needs to be programmed through the CAM module nor by the “CAD/CAM programmer”. The point we want to make here is that CAD can be different than CAD/CAM. While having a drawing and design application … a CAD program … can be and oftentimes is essential … the CAM part is up for discussion. Handing off a drawing and having the simpler workpieces … the everyday type workpieces … programmed on the shop floor can free up additional programming resources to concentrate on the more complex programming required for the more complex components. Shop floor programming can be the key that unlocks increased efficiency and productivity … even when using a CAD ( and / or CAD/CAM ) programming model.

And home and hobby shops?

One man, small shops and hobby makers can also reap the rewards of NOT programming every workpiece through a CAD/CAM system and using a shop floor programming application. The quick and efficient programming made possible through tools like Kipware® conversational can assist in realizing the quick and accurate production of workpieces … whether a single component, multiple components or in production. Spending time creating drawings … because every CAD/CAM program starts with a CAD model … for even the simplest of operations … can slow down, bog down, and waste time that home and hobby shops can’t afford to waste.

Although usually a CAD system is required in these environments … mainly because small shops and one man shops also do their own design … shop floor programming and tools like Kipware® conversational can also be an essential part of their efficiency.

Bottom line …

CAD/CAM is a great tool. But it can be overkill … can often bog down a programming environment … and can remove good chipmakers from the programming process. These chipmakers are more often than not the keys to unlocking a good SHOP FLOOR PROGRAMMING SYSTEM and the benefits that can come from that.

Don’t be fooled by the CAD/CAM marketing.
Don’t get caught in CAD/CAM overkill.

We invite you to explore Kipware conversational and see how shop floor programming can set you and your shop floor free !!

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

When is a CNC Program More Than JUST G Code?

… when it’s a set-up sheet as well.

Most people are familiar with the ability of most CNC controls to include COMMENTS in the CNC G code program itself. Comments are designated in a variety of ways from :

  1. ( THIS IS A FANUC AND OKUMA COMMENT ) … any text inside (  ) is considered a comment.
  2. ! THIS IS AN ACRAMATIC COMMENT … any text following the ! is considered a comment.
  3. ; THIS IS A FAGOR COMMENT … any text following the ; is considered a comment.
  4. and on and on we could go.

Comments can be a real help when they include operator messages … such as :


… but comments can go well beyond operator messages and can turn your G code program into a complete set-up doc as well that includes tool information, part zero locations and even stock descriptions.

Most people will create either a paper or digital tool sheet / list and / or set-up sheet / list that is stored and re-called when the corresponding G code program is going to be run again. The set-up personnel refer to these docs to set the machine up … loading required tools and setting height offsets and work offsets. Works great … no problems. But is there a better alternative? The answer is a “could be” yes. By storing this information directly in the G code program using the COMMENT capability of your CNC control. For example … something like this :

( PART #1234 )
( PROVEN PROGRAM : 7/2/2014 )
( T1 / H1 = #3 CENTER DRILL )
( T2 / H22  = 1/2 DRILL )
( T3 / H3 = .500 CARBIDE END MILL )

So what is the advantage of keeping this info directly in the G code program using the COMMENTS capability of the CNC control?

  1. Harder to misplace … if you’re going to run the program, you need the program … and all the set-up info is right there stored right inside the G code program.
  2. Complete info is there for all to see at any time … no rummaging for loose paperwork or docs.
  3. Any edits or changes can be made directly in the program … when the running program is saved after execution … all the current set-up info is changed and saved as well including all updated data.

We often get asked … “Won’t this slow down my program execution speed?” The truth is that it will … but it will also be so minimal that usually the cost savings of having comments and all the convenience that comes with it far outweigh any reduction in program execution time. Rummaging around for lost documentation or re-creating lost documentation would be the real money waster.

Just a little something to think about if you haven’t considered COMMENTS already in your CNC programming. We touched on only a few points here … but we’re sure you can find many more benefits depending on the capabilities or lack thereof pertaining to your particular CNC programming operation. The fact is that expanding the use of COMMENTS in your CNC programming could be a real time and money saving alternative to digital or paper documentation.

Until next time … Happy Chip Making !!
Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

Building the X-CARVE for KÄRV Woodworking

As mentioned in our previous post … we are in the process of creating and setting up a sister company to Kentech Inc. … called KÄRV.

KÄRV will allow us to take our metalworking talents … along with the Kipware® software we designed and built at Kentech … to the woodworking stage as we create custom, handmade furniture and unique wood carvings and introduce them to the KÄRV product line.

We will be using our quoting and estimating software to help determine pricing … and our conversational CNC programming software to help create G code programs for our X-CARVE CNC router.

And all along the way … we will be blogging about it all here. So we invite you to visit often and see Kipware® in action … and maybe even discover some KÄRV products that you might like to own !!

We began back on October 22 by registering KÄRV as a business in our city … started setting up our workshop … ordered our X-CARVE … and now we have completed the build and test cut for the X-CARVE.


We waited for a little over (3) weeks to receive the X-CARVE … which seemed like an eternity … after we placed the order. That was a little disappointing. Of course the X-CARVE came un-assembled … and in many many pieces. But the good new was the step-by-step instructions available from INVENTABLES … the creators of the X-CARVE were just fabulous. Very in-depth … easy to follow … and coupled with some patience we went from box to completed assembly in about 24 total hours. One not-so-nice event was that while we were able to build the complete machine … the controller was back-ordered. So the completed machine sat and waited for almost 1 week while we waited for the controller. Finally we had to make a few calls to INVENTABLES to gently nudge them and we received the controller … and set out to test carve.


We decided to program some simple lettering for our test cut … and make a little sign for the workshop. We used Vectric VCARVE software which we bought from INVENTABLES when we purchased our X-CARVE. The software appears to be quite powerful and it was real easy to create our desired toolpath.


We cut the letters reversed … leaving .010 of material on the back edge just to hold everything together. Then we glued the letters to a backing piece of wood … turned the whole assemble over and sanded off the .010 of material to reveal the letters. Not bad for a first sample.

So now we are ready to move onto bigger and better things !!
Stay tuned … or visit us at www.KarvWoodworking.com

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

Why Use Cutter Compensation In Your CNC Programming ?

The story has been circulating here about a support issue that was raised recently where a Kipware® conversational customer inquired about how to have KipwareT® output program coordinates using the tool center vs. using G41/G42 cutter compensation and the imaginary tool tip on the control. The conversation went something like this :

Support Staff : “Why would you want to do that? That’s really not a good programming practice.”

Client : “Well all our programs are written like that.”

Support Staff : “OK … but that’s not a good programming practice. When we created Kipware® conversational we wanted to include best programming practice so KipwareT® outputs G41 / G42 and does all the calculations and automatically includes all start-up and cancel blocks and code … so it creates a better program. No worries … even if you don’t know how to program it KipwareT® does it all for you.”

Client : “Yes but nobody programs like that.”

Really? Nobody out there programs like that? We find that hard to believe.

So … we decided to post some of our main reasoning for considering the use of cutter compensation on the control as “Best Programming Practice”. If you agree with our points … we hope that you will consider making the change … getting educated … and to start creating your G code programs using G41 / G42 cutter compensation.


  1. Program Coordinates … programming to the tool tip center means that coordinates in the program do not reflect actual part print coordinates. Coordinates are based on the tool tip center rather than on the part dimensions. You can imagine the trouble and confusion that happens when edits need to be made.
  2. Tool Interchange – Turning … since the G code was written for a specific tool radius … the program will only function correctly for that tool radius. Decide to use a 1/64 radius for finish when the program was written for a 1/32 radius … re-program or re-generate the toolpath.
  3. Tool Interchange – Milling … I think this point probably comes into play more for milling G code than turning G code. Does your shop always have perfect .500 end mills? If so … WHY ???? Re-grinding end mills is quite a cost saver … but it means your end mills might be .485 or something odd. If you use G41 / G42 … who cares? Just enter the correct offset value.
  4. Dimensional Adjustments … Come on, this is the real world. There is no reason to keep running back and forth to the CAD/CAM guy or programming office when dimensional adjustments need to be made during production … and they will be because cutting conditions are not theoretical, they’re real !!. Cutter compensation and part / tool offsets can handle probably 99.99% of all dimensional adjustments. Use the power of the control !!

Some of the main reasons we hear for why clients don’t use cutter compensation ( and none of them are valid by the way ) …

  1. Nobody taught me. Come on … grab a hold of your future and do some “playing” at the machine … or read for yourself. This is a truly important programming tool … you need to know hoe to use it if you want to go anywhere.
  2. Nobody uses it.  Like our scenario above … just keeping following the crowd … over the cliff. If I ran that shop … the guy that comes to me and says “I think we need to change the way we think about cutter compensation” would have more of my respect than the guy who gives me the excuse “That’s the way we always did it.”

“I’m not stubborn … 

it’s just that doing things your way is stupid.”

After having spent more than 30+ years creating … editing … teaching … G code and running shops on a day-to-day basis … cutter compensation is one of the most mis-understood and mis-used programming feature. And also the most important tool a programmer and operator and shop foreman has at his/her disposal.

If you agree … want to learn more … or just want some additional reading … below is a link to one of our previous posts that dealt with this issue also … CLICK HERE for that article.

Unfortunately CAD/CAM systems have made it so easy to program with tool tip radius … but in the real world, on the shop floor, it can be a real detriment to productivity and efficiency. We urge any CNC programmer out there who is not using cutter compensation on the control to step up and take control of your future … get educated on cutter compensation … and use cutter compensation in your G code. Your future will be a lot brighter … and profitable.

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Kentech Inc.

We’re taking our talents to …

After 30+ years in the metalworking industry … we are about to expand our scope as I TAKE MY TALENTS TO … WOOD !!


On October 22, 2016 … KÄRV was born !!

Personally I have been dabbling in woodworking for quite a while and I felt the time had come to take it to the next level.  I mean why not?? Through Kentech Inc. we have developed all the software needed to operate a manufacturing business through our quoting and estimating … CNC programming … and shop utility software. When you come right down to it … making products from wood is very similar to making products from metal. A collaboration between Kärv and Kentech is a NATURAL !!

We invite you to follow our progress along here at the Kipware Blog and on our CNC Machinist Blog as we rev up. We will be detailing our progress as we receive and set-up our X-CARVE cnc router from Inventables. We we will be illustrating and blogging all the steps from unpacking to first cut at the blogs … so please follow along.

After we get the X-CARVE up and running we will be illustrating and blogging about how we integrate our Kipware® quoting and estimating software and Kipware® programming software into winning work … and producing work !! … so please follow along.


We will also be publishing more on the offerings from Kärv on the Kärv website … www.KarvWoodworking .com. So please visit the website as well. Who knows … you might even find some items of interest for yourself or for gifts.

Kenney Skonieczny – President
Craftsman and Maker … www.KarvWoodworking.com